Research Publications

CAPA Research Publications are long-form in-depth analysis of a feature of the aviation industry, presented in PDF format.

CAPA Aircraft Interiors - State of the Industry 2023

As the aviation industry emerges from three years of pandemic-induced turmoil and hiatus, the aircraft interiors sector has once again become lively, with major developments taking shape across seat manufacturing, inflight connectivity (IFC), and inflight entertainment (IFE).

With the CAPA Aircraft Interiors Database, this report will analyse recent industry trends with data, visualising areas that have shown tremendous growth while providing clarity on how leading suppliers in each sector have shrunk and grown.

In this report, we will explore the following:

Seat manufacturing
• Largest suppliers
• Collins’ Dominance among the US Big Three
• Beyond the US: Expansion of Recaro and Geven
• Spotlight China: Rise of ‘Made in China’ AVIC seats
• The Pursuit of the Lightweight Seat
• The Ever-narrowing Seat Pitch
• Increased Focus on Premium seats
• Latest New Cabin Trend: Business Plus

Inflight connectivity (IFC)
• LEO Connectivity
• Globalisation of Connected Regional Jets

Inflight entertainment (IFE)
• Embedded IFE
• Narrowbody IFE: The Return of Seatback Screens?
• Wireless IFE

To get a snapshot of the data and insights shown in this report, download the shortened complimentary very below.

CAPA Aircraft Interiors - State of the Industry 2023 Snapshot

Get a taste of CAPA's new Aircraft Interiors - State of the Industry 2023 Report.

In this version we explore examples of the data and insights shown in the in-depth report above.

Learn more about the aircraft interiors sector which has once again become lively, with major developments taking shape across seat manufacturing, inflight connectivity (IFC), and inflight entertainment (IFE). 

CAPA Explains - Money Flows in the Aviation Industry

Intended Audiences: The audiences that will benefit from the CAPA Explains series include –

  • Airlines;
  • Travel technology companies, such as GDS, NDC providers and new aggregators, online booking tool providers in corporate travel (OBTs);
  • Travel intermediaries – agents, OTAs, TMCs, wholesalers and tour operators;
  • Other travel category vendors;
  • Corporate customers – travel managers, buyers, procurement and ESG stakeholders;
  • Travellers.

Benefits of Purchasing

  • Gain access and knowledge to all areas of change affecting each topic/edition:
    • Consolidate your learning in one place, at your fingertips and without the need for self-directed research;
  • Save time and therefore money in researching important topics;
  • Gain insights that help you develop your strategy to benefit, or mitigate negative implications of the changes occurring in the travel distribution ecosystem;
  • Utilise CAPA’s extensive research, industry knowledge and externally sourced expertise related to the ever-changing travel distribution ecosystem;
  • Understand the changes in travel distribution in a simple, single, clear, and concise manner.

Introducing Edition 1 - Money Flows in the Aviation Industry (and the implications of change on all constituents in the ecosystem)

  • Explaining the dynamics of aviation money flows:
    • How have they worked in the past?
    • What has been changing?
      • When, the amounts and the impacts in the ecosystem.
    • What has happened in the last weeks and months?
    • Why have money flows changed?
    • Who is implicated and by what scale in the ecosystem?
      • Airlines (principals), GDS & travel technology vendors, intermediaries (agents / TMC’s etc), online booking tool providers in corporate travel (OBTs), customers and travellers
    • What might happen next?
    • Winners & losers in the changes.

This is a must read first edition which represents a single source to understand the money flows and how historic, recent and future changes are impacting EVERY part of the ecosystem.

Top 10 European airports for 2022 and 2023 outlook

After a slow start to 2022, traffic at European airports bounced back strongly through the year thanks to a strong northern summer travel period.

At European airports, total passenger throughput nearly doubled in 2022. This occurred despite the nearly unprecedented operational issues experienced through the peak summer travel months (and again at the start of the northern winter period), along with near record oil prices, a war in Eastern Europe, and an uncertain economic outlook denting consumer confidence.

CAPA-Envest Global Airline Sustainability Benchmarking & Rating Report 2022

We're so excited to announce that the second edition of the CAPA-Envest Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Report is here.

The report is the industry's first single source of truth on emissions, benchmarking airlines and their performance as they transition the net zero operations. Now in its second year, this report is sure to capture the attention of the entire aviation and corporate travel industries.

This report, jointly prepared by CAPA - Centre for Aviation (CAPA) and Envest Global (Envest) is a further step in providing a clearer understanding of the status of emissions in the airline industry. Importantly, it provides an independently evaluated “airline sustainability rating” system, based upon a range of key emissions metrics and utilising a range of publicly available data points.

It also highlights the numerous challenges presented in the post-COVID-19 recovery and seeks to provide a clear and consistent set of fact-based metrics to assist stakeholders in their industry engagement and decision-making. Given the lack of standards – even within the airline alliances and airline groups – the new CAPA-Envest report is designed with the clearly stated objective of establishing an independent and objective (non-political) index that can serve as the potential future foundation for industry-wide policy-making.

As well, the report provides corporate travel buyers and the Travel Management Companies (TMCs) servicing these customers with a credible and data driven framework capable of helping with the design and implementation of sustainable travel policies and the subsequent allocation of budget (i.e. the buying of airline tickets) towards airlines that are performing better overall in the new index.



CAPA Members and CTC Corporate Buyer Members receive exclusive discounts, Contact us or reach out to your dedicated CAPA Account Manager. 

The world’s biggest pension funds and their investments into airports

A previous CAPA report, published in Dec-2022, identified the world’s leading sovereign wealth funds and which of them invested in, or at least paid attention to, the airports business.

This report turns to pension funds, which collectively have assets similar in scope to SWFs – in other words, a lot of cash.

Like SWFs, the fund managers have been attracted to the traditional security and longevity of airports (although airports have been less secure since the COVID-19 pandemic).

The report looks at the Top 30 pension funds by asset size, out of which 10 have airport interests, meaning they are investors – have been, or have indicated an aspiration to be.

And five of the top seven have invested in airports, or tried to.

Those investments are at widely contrasting levels, from small airports in the US aspiring to take on larger rivals to global hubs.

Of the 20 that have shown no known interest in the sector, many are in the US, and the changing scene there, with public-private partnership arrangements increasingly funding major airport infrastructure investments, means there may yet be a role for them.

The world’s biggest sovereign wealth funds and their investments into airports

Recently, CAPA - Centre for Aviation reported on interest allegedly coming from Saudi Arabia’s Public Investment Fund, a sovereign wealth fund (SWF), in London Heathrow Airport where Ferrovial may sell some or all of its stock.

The Saudis are not yet committed to the airport sector in the UK (while they are to sport - Newcastle United Football Club, and Abu Dhabi owns Manchester City), but they must have noticed that six SWFs already are part-owners of three London airports.

In fact, London is the nexus of financial sector interest in airports - partly on account of London being one of the leading centres in the world for such activities, as well as collectively the world’s biggest hub for air transport activities. Not to mention that it is open to foreign business.

If there is to be further airport M&A activity from SWFs it is in cities like London where it is most likely to happen. Conversely, there is no set pattern otherwise to those investments elsewhere, and half of the Top 15 SWFs aren’t directly into airports at all.

This report investigates each of those Top 15 SWFs individually.

Report Summary:

  • Of the top 15 Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs), half are active in the air transport sector and have gained in prominence there in recent years.
  • Airports historically appeal to SWFs for a variety of reasons, and CAPA’s investors directory lists 18 of those SWFs with financial interests in the sector.
  • On the other hand, some that might be expected to play a part have yet to make any direct investments in the sector.
  • There is a broad geographic spread of invested airports, which (in the main) are primary airports and hubs.
  • The biggest attraction is London, where three airports are partly owned by six SWFs.
  • The report analyses the top 15 SWFs for their exposure to the airport sector.
Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Report 2021 - Business Travel Edition

The CAPA-Envest Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Report 2021 is the first industry single source of truth on emissions, benchmarking airlines and their performance

Corporate travel procurement increasingly will be decided not just on traditional metrics, including price, airline network, schedule, flexibility, and loyalty rewards, but also on the stated sustainability strategies of airlines and the demonstrated outcomes of decarbonisation commitments.
To ensure that a company’s sustainability objectives are also supported by the actions of travel suppliers including airlines, it is critical that corporate procurement divisions have access to meaningful and detailed performance data from airlines to demonstrate not only the existence of sustainability strategies, but also demonstrated actions and
evidence of outcomes.
This report, jointly prepared by CAPA - Centre for Aviation (CAPA) and Envest Global (Envest), is designed to highlight some of the core elements of sustainable aviation, methods of quantifying individual airline sustainability credentials, and carbon emissions by journey, to assist corporations in identifying the travel suppliers most closely aligned to their own sustainability ambitions.

Key facts about the Report

  • 50 page report
  • Benchmarking of 52 airlines and their reported emissions for 2019 and 2020
  • 8 Figures/graphics and analysis showing the most important airline comparisons for pre-COVID 2019.
  • Insights into global corporations’ decarbonisation strategies and implications for corporate travel reduction

Why Travel Managers need this report, the data is contains and what you can do with it

  • Provides relevant and credible reporting metrics to support traveller’s/ corporates’ own emission targets/objectives
  • May guide and influence future buyer behaviours sector and opportunities for partnering programs, joint investment with airlines
  • Provides a broader industry benchmarking tool at a more micro level to that available via other sources.
  • Supports travel managers who are under pressure from internal ESG / sustainability teams for provision of reliable data for current emissions, but also for defining and implementing an ongoing program for reduction of the carbon emission footprint generated by the travel program.

Want to know more?

CAPA/Envest are holding dedicated Travel Manager virtual training sessions to delve deeper into airline sustainability
benchmarking. To learn more or book your spot contact CAPA at info@centreforaviation.com.
Individual/Restricted - CAPA-Envest Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Report 2021

CAPA launches historic, first of its kind airline sustainability benchmarking report

Globally, consumers, communities and countries are increasingly demanding climate action. So too are investors, who now want proof, not just talk of climate plans and results. Now more than ever, airlines are under pressure to cut flight emissions through sustainable aviation fuels, efficient aircraft and propulsion systems, as well as carbon pricing and reduction strategies. These are expensive solutions at any time, let alone post-COVID, when airlines are posting record losses. But the cost of inaction is even higher.

The CAPA-Envest Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Report 2021 is the industry’s first single source of truth on emissions, benchmarking airlines and their performance as they transition the net zero operations. The 130+ page report includes: 

  • 52 airlines benchmarked using their reported emissions for 2019 and 2020;
  • Analysis on the most important airline comparisons for the year pre-COVID, 2019;
  • Insights into global corporations’ decarbonisation strategies and implications for corporate travel; and
  • Perspectives on investor demands for the airline industry and how these will continue to lead to increased pressure on airline boards and senior management.

REPORT SNEAK PREVIEW! The total CO2 emissions by airlines in 2019 highlight the largest emitters and the significance of the top 10 airlines relative to total industry emissions.


  • CAPA Members receive a USD1,000 discount off purchases. Contact your account manager for the code.
  • Ensure you are purchasing the correct version:
    • Individual/Restricted: For internal use only.
    • Enterprise Usage: For subsidiary sharing, external use and resale e.g., consulting.
    • Airline Only: Special discounted version for airlines.

Deepen your research with the CAPA Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Dashboards and Data Compendium

Also available for purchase is the CAPA Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Dashboards and Data Compendium. Each document allows the reader to delve further into the data collated by CAPA and Envest Global to benchmark the relevant airlines. The dashboards show individual airline results, highlighted for ease of visualisation and the compendium provides raw data for further analysis. 

Contact us or reach out to your dedicated Account Manager for access. 

The new shape of the aviation industry – CAPA’s 2022 megatrends and World Summit Agenda

The CAPA World Aviation Summit returns in 2022 in the beautiful British territory of Gibraltar.

The event, held on 1-2 December, and hosted by the Government of Gibraltar, will bring together thought leaders from aviation and the wider travel industry, including airline executives, key suppliers, technology partners and regulators.

The focus for this year’s summit is: the biggest trends that faced the aviation industry in 2022 and how they will influence strategies into 2023 and beyond.

Global airline leaders will share their insights and perspectives on the changes in the aviation sector over the last year, how the industry has adapted and set development targets for the future.

Topics under discussions will include: overcoming the pressures of rising costs, the push for environmental sustainability, operational issues in a post-pandemic world, the varied paths of international recovery, government ownership, ongoing digital transformation, the role of partnerships and alliances, and much more.

Download our 2022 megatrends report to learn more about these trends and the upcoming CAPA World Aviation Summit Agenda. To register for the Summit, visit the following link.